TYPES OF GARDENS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
The word “jardin” (garden) comes to Spain in the fifteenth century but its origins come from the term “jardin”, known since the twelfth century, seems to come from the Latin-Germanic compound hortus gardinus which literally means “garden surrounded by a fence”, Hortus from Latin, fructi garden, or gart or gardo “closed”, as if the garden had to defend against the animals and even the thieves. The garden can be defined as the land where plants and flowers are grown with decorative and ornamental motifs.
The construction of the first known gardens dates back to the time of the Egyptians, who built authentic gardens along the banks of the Nile River. The need to create spaces for leisure and meeting, the human need to live with nature and Capacity (sometimes with negative connotations) to modify our environment to adapt to our needs has generated around the world different styles of gardens and landscapes related to cultures and adaptations to different climates and species of the planet.
We can define landscaping as the study or design of the natural environment, especially parks and gardens. The landscaper plans and designs urban and rural landscapes in time and space, based on the natural characteristics and historical and cultural values of the place. To achieve this, appropriate techniques and natural and / or artificial materials are used, guided by aesthetic, functional, scientific and planning principles. In Spain, we can find the Spanish Association of Landscapists founded in 1952 as an Institute of Studies of Gardening and Landscape Art
The styles of gardens are as many as cultures and places are in the world, but in a very general way we can talk about:
It is a style marked by the dry climate that generates environments of great beauty based on materials of the region such as stones and drought-resistant vegetation. Light coloured stone walls, water in movement and brightly coloured flowers. All this with a minimalist touch that represents the most typical of the Spanish, French and the Italian gardens of the region of Tuscany.
CLASSIC OR CONTINENTAL ROMANTIC GARDEN
This type of gardens has great extensions where the control of the handwork of the man is tangible in the linear of hedges trimmed and the grass perfectly mowed. They are geometric gardens with straight lines, with pastel colours and a multitude of shades of green. The paths are of sand or gravel and in them are placed classic sculptures or pots of clay. They are gardens with special splendour in the Fall season. Good example of them are the typical French or English gardens.
They are gardens of the most exotic areas of the planet where the climatic conditions of constant temperature and humidity allow their development. The protagonists are tropical and exotic species as well as abundant vegetation. The type of characteristic plants has particularly large leaves and only few flowers that require low attentions.
These gardens do not require excessive care since they pretend to simulate the frondiness and disorder as the jungle. Only the species should be pruned when they disturb, if it is not the case, they should be allowed to grow naturally. Outside of its environment is recommended the construction of ponds or waterfalls with typical rocks of the area, taking advantage of or creating unevenness that contribute the level of environmental humidity needed for this type of plant diversity.
FENG SHUI GARDEN
Of Chinese origin, it is meant to be a study of the energies transmitted between nature and man. These are small spaces, relaxing, balanced and with circular or wave forms. Feng Shui art, whose meaning is “wind and water,” runs away from over-detail and ostentation, using elements of composition such as rocks, plants, sculptures, walls, pots, elements with water and ornaments.
They are one of the most famous architectural elements of mankind. The design and the elements that compose it can be analysed from a geographical or topographical point of view. Thus, the landscape of the garden represents an archipelago of islands located mostly around the Seto Inland Sea. The Japanese garden also represents the cosmos, place of central importance in the Shinto religion. A large void (equivalent to the sea) full of celestial bodies (islands).
The Rocks are the stars of these gardens. They represent mountains or islands, scattered in a vacuum that mimics the sea. The most used are those of volcanic origin, mainly those of basalt.
It is a garden to walk, see and hear, and express the longing for paradise. It is a garden that fascinates due to its sensitivity, its intimate character and the harmony of its parts. The main characteristic elements are:
- Divisions of private spaces: when the dimensions of space allows it, the space should be divided into rooms communicated through narrow passages with arches, bars, lattices or other elements that allow us to glimpse the next room providing mystery and sensation of discovery.
- Water is always present: the water goes through the different places in the garden, even entering the rooms and bringing freshness, sound and movement.
- o Structural elements: paved walks, walls, piles, arches, fountains …, generally of stone or covered with tiles of varied designs and marked Arab character.
- Mediterranean plants arranged in the paths and pots and that withstand well the drought. The cypress and orange trees are the most characteristic trees.
Now that you know the most important types of gardens you just must decide which one you like best and which one suits better to your space needs ;). If you need advice, you already know how to contact us.
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